CBSE Notes Class 10 Economics Sectors of the Indian Economy

Here I am going to provide you CBSE Notes Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy.

In this chapter you will learn 3 types of classifications of economy i.e primary/secondary/tertiary,organised/unorganised and public/private. To understand this chapter in a better way, try to relate the topics to your daily life. In these notes, you will also get familiarised with a few fundamental concepts such as Gross Domestic Product, Employment, etc. By going through Sectors of the Indian Economy Class 10 Notes you will acquire a better command on this chapter. So,use these notes and do your best!

Table of Contents :-

• Sectors of Economic Activities
• Difference Between the Three Sectors of the Economy
• Historical Changes in Sectors:
• Where are Most of the People Employed?
• How to Create More Employment?
• Different Sectors in Terms of Operations
• Different Sectors in Terms of Ownership

Sectors of Economic Activities

Primary Sector:

• The primary sector is when we make a product by extracting and collecting natural resources.

• Farming, forestry, hunting, fishing, and mining are just a few examples.

Secondary Sector:

• It includes operations that include the transformation of natural goods into new forms through various manufacturing
• After primary school, it’s time to go on to secondary school. In this case, some production steps are required.
• The industrial sector is another name for it.
• For example, we spin yarn and make cloth from the plant’s cotton fiber. Sugar or Gur is produced using sugarcane as a
basic ingredient.

Tertiary Sector:

• Activities that aid in the growth of the elementary and secondary sectors are included in the tertiary sector.
• These actions do not generate a good in and of itself, but they help or support the production process.
• It’s also known as the service sector.
• Teachers, doctors, washermen, barbers, cobblers, lawyers, call centres, software businesses, and so on are some

Difference Between the Three Sectors of the Economy

These primary, secondary and tertiary activities are interdependent on each other, as the goods and services produced in one .

  1. Final goods and services mean those goods and services that are directly consumed by the consumers and are not meant
    for further production and processing.
  2. Intermediate goods and services mean those goods and services that are used for further production on processing.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP):-

• The sum of the output that is once done through primary, secondary, and tertiary activities is known as the Gross
Domestic Product (GDP).
• The value of all of these final goods from all three sectors would be counted into the gross domestic product.
• It shows how big the economy is.
• In India, the task of measuring GDP is undertaken by a central government ministry.

Historical Changes in Sectors:

• The primary sector was the most important sector of economic activity in a country throughout its early phases of
• The agriculture sector began to generate significantly more food than before as a result of technological advancements in
farming processes.
• People began working in factories. Some persons are also involved in the transportation industry.
• The secondary sector gradually became the most important in terms of the economy and employment.
• A great variety of industries relating to food processing, equipment manufacturing, and textiles are present.
• This resulted in the establishment of services such as banking, health care, and education.
• In terms of total production, the service industry has overtaken manufacturing as the most significant sector, and it has
begun to employ more people.

Rising Importance of Tertiary Sector in Production

In the year 2013-14, the tertiary sector emerged as the largest producing sector in India, replacing the primary sector.

The tertiary sector has become important in India because of the following reasons:
• Services such as hospitals, educational institutions, post and telegraph services, police stations, courts, village
administrative offices, municipal corporations, defence, transport, banks, insurance companies, etc. are considered as basic
services and are necessary for all people.
• The development of agriculture and industry leads to the development of services such as transport, trade, storage, etc.
• With the rise in the income of people, they start demanding more services like eating out, tourism, shopping, private
hospitals, private schools, professional training, etc.
• Over the past decade, certain new services based on information and communication technology have become important
and essential.

Where are Most of the People Employed?

• In the period during 1973-74, 40% is contributed by the primary sector in GDP of the country
• Secondary sector contributed only 12% and 48% is contributed by the tertiary sector.

• Employment percent during the period of 1972-73, 74% people of India are engaged in primary sector while only 15% are
involved in tertiary sector.
• In 2013-14, the percent of contribution of tertiary sector in GDP of the country increased and reached to 67% and the
primary sector reduced to only 12%.
• But yet the primary sector continues to be the largest employer during 2011-12.

Different types of unemployment in India :

  1. Underemployment or disguised employment
    • A situation where more people are engaged than required. So, even if you turned people out, production will not be
    affected. It is called underemployment.
  2. Seasonal unemployment
    • When people are unemployed for a particular season, it is as seasonal unemployment.
    For example :– If farmers are ploughing land only for rabi season then, they, become unemployed for the rest of the

How to Create More Employment?

• Employment can be given to people by identifying, promoting and locating industries and services in semi-rural areas.
• Every state or region has the potential for increasing the income and employment for people in that area.
• It can be done by tourism, or regional craft industry, or new services like IT.
• A study conducted by the Planning Commission (known as NITI Aayog) estimates that nearly 20 lakh jobs can be created
in the education sector alone.

Various ways to provide employment opportunities in rural areas :

• Provide loans to small farmers for cultivation, irrigation and so on.
• Dams, canal can be constructed will lead to a lot of employment generation.
• Construction of roads in rural area creates employments in rural community.
• More and more schools should be opened which would create jobs in education sector and literacy as well in rural area.
• To improve the health situation, we need more doctors, nurses and health workers to work in rural area.

Various ways to create more employment in the agriculture sector :

• Loans could be given to farmers to buy the agriculture equipments.
• Dams can be built to irrigate dry areas.
• Seeds and fertilizers could be subsidized.
• Storage facilities could be provided.
• Transport facilities could be increased.

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)

• It is primarily used by persons who live in rural areas who are able and willing to work. Every year, the MGNREGA gives at
least 100 days of work to rural households that voluntarily volunteer to conduct unskilled work.
• The MGNREGA scheme is open to any Indian citizen over the age of 18 who lives in a rural area.
• Another goal of the MGNREGA act is to give rural communities long-term assets such as roads, wells, and ponds.
• If the government fails to produce jobs, the people will be forced to rely on unemployment benefits.
• It is implemented without the use of contractors or agents in gram panchayats.
• This law aids in the preservation of the village environment, the empowerment of rural women, the promotion of social
equality, the reduction of migration to urban regions, and the provision of essential services, among other things.

Different Sectors in Terms of Operations

  1. Organized Sector:
    • Organized sectors are those that provide fixed and secure employment as well as work for a limited amount of time to
    their employees based on their motivation and qualifications.
    • These industries adhere to the government’s norms and regulations.
    • Employees in the organized sector have job security.
  2. Unorganized Sector:
    • The government seems to have little influence over the unorganized sector.

How to Protect Workers in Unorganised Sector

• There is a need for protection and support of the workers in the unorganised sector. Here are a few points which will help
in doing so:
• The government can fix the minimum wages rate and working hours.
• The government can provide cheap loans to self-employed people.
• Government can provide cheap and affordable basic services like education, health, food to these workers.
• The government can frame new laws which can provide provision for overtime, paid leave, leave due to sickness, etc.

Different Sectors in Terms of Ownership

  1. Public Sector:
    • The government controls most assets and is responsible for all services in the public sector.
    • The public sector’s goal isn’t only to make money. Its main goal is to benefit the general population.
    • The public sector includes things like railways and post offices.
  2. Private Sector:
    • Asset ownership and service delivery are in the hands of private individuals or corporations in the private sector.
    • Profit is the primary motivation for private-sector activity.
    • Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited (TISCO) and Reliance Industries Limited are two privately held companies (RIL)

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